Antimicrobial - An antimicrobial is a substance that kills or inhibits the growth of microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, or protozoans, as well as destroying viruses. Antimicrobial drugs either kill microbes (microbicidal) or prevent the growth of microbes (microbistatic). Disinfectants are anti-microbial substances used on non-living objects.
The history of antimicrobials begins with the observations of Pasteur and Joubert, who discovered that one type of bacteria could prevent the growth of another. They did not know at that time that the reason one bacteria failed to grow was that the other bacteria was producing an antibiotic. Technically, antibiotics are only those substances that are produced by one microorganism that kill, or prevent the growth, of another microorganism.
Of course, in today's common usage, the term antibiotic is used to refer to almost any drug that cures a bacterial infection. Antimicrobials include not just antibiotics, but synthetically formed compounds as well.
Deoderiser - A deodoriser is an equipment for deodorising, the final stage in vegetable oil refining. Deodorising removes odoriferous material, free fatty acids and other undesired minor components to produce a bland oil with a good shelf life.
Fragrance - An aroma compound, also known as odorant, aroma, fragrance or flavor, is a chemical compound that has a smell or odor. A chemical compound has a smell or odor when two conditions are met: the compound needs to be volatile, so it can be transported to the olfactory system in the upper part of the nose, and it needs to be in a sufficiently high concentration to be able to interact with one or more of the olfactory receptors.
Aroma compounds can be found in food, wine, spices, perfumes, fragrance oils, and essential oils. For example, many form biochemically during ripening of fruits and other crops. In wines, most form as byproducts of fermentation. Odorants can also be added to a dangerous odorless substance, like natural gas or hydrogen, as a warning. As well many of the aroma compounds plays a significant role in the production of flavorants, which are used in the food service industry to flavor, improve and increase the appeal of their products.
Hydrophobic - In chemistry, hydrophobicity (from the combining form of water in Attic Greek hydro- and for fear phobos) refers to the physical property of a molecule (known as a hydrophobe) that is repelled from a mass of water.
Hydrophobic molecules tend to be non-polar and thus prefer other neutral molecules and nonpolar solvents. Hydrophobic molecules in water often cluster together forming micelles. Water on hydrophobic surfaces will exhibit a high contact angle.
Examples of hydrophobic molecules include the alkanes, oils, fats, and greasy substances in general. Hydrophobic materials are used for oil removal from water, the management of oil spills, and chemical separation processes to remove non-polar from polar compounds.
MSRA - Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a bacterium responsible for difficult-to-treat infections in humans. It may also be referred to as multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (ORSA). MRSA is by definition a strain of Staphylococcus aureus that is resistant to a large group of antibiotics called the beta-lactams, which include the penicillins and the cephalosporins.
The organism is often sub-categorized as Community-Associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) or Health Care-Associated MRSA (HA-MRSA) although this distinction is complex. Some have defined CA-MRSA by criteria related to patients suffering from an MRSA infection while other authors have defined CA-MRSA by genetic characteristics of the bacteria themselves. CA-MRSA strains were first reported in the late 1990s; these cases were defined by a lack of exposure to the health care setting. In the next several years, it became clear that CA-MRSA infections were caused by strains of MRSA that differed from the older and better studied healthcare-associated strains. The new CA-MRSA strains have rapidly become the most common cause of cultured skin infections among individuals seeking emergency medical care for these infections in urban areas of the United States. These strains also commonly cause skin infections in athletes, jail and prison detainees, and soldiers.
MRSA is a resistant variation of the common bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. It has evolved an ability to survive treatment with beta-lactam antibiotics, including methicillin, dicloxacillin, nafcillin, and oxacillin. MRSA is especially troublesome in hospital-associated (nosocomial) infections. In hospitals, patients with open wounds, invasive devices, and weakened immune systems are at greater risk for infection than the general public. Hospital staff who do not follow proper sanitary procedures may transfer bacteria from patient to patient. Visitors to patients with MRSA infections or MRSA colonization are advised to follow hospital isolation protocol by using the provided gloves, gowns, and masks if indicated. Visitors who do not follow such protocols are capable of spreading the bacteria to cafeterias, bathrooms, and elevators.
Plastic - Plastic is the general common term for a wide range of synthetic or semisynthetic organic amorphous solid materials suitable for the manufacture of industrial products. Plastics are typically polymers of high molecular weight, and may contain other substances to improve performance and/or reduce costs.
The word derives from the Greek πλαστικ?ς (plastikos) meaning fit for molding, and πλαστ?ς (plastos) meaning molded. It refers to their malleability, or plasticity during manufacture, that allows them to be cast, pressed, or extruded into an enormous variety of shapes—such as films, fibers, plates, tubes, bottles, boxes, and much more.
The common word plastic should not be confused with the technical adjective plastic, which is applied to any material which undergoes a permanent change of shape (plastic deformation) when strained beyond a certain point. Aluminum, for instance, is plastic in this sense, but not a plastic in the common sense; while some plastics, in their finished forms, will break before deforming and therefore are not plastic in the technical sense.
There are two types of plastics, thermoplastic and thermoset. Thermoplastics, if exposed to enough heat, will melt. Thermosets will keep their shape until they are charred and burnt. Some examples of thermoplastics are grocery bags, piano keys and some automobile parts. Examples of thermosets are kid's dinner sets and circuit boards.
Scent - An odor or odour (see spelling differences) is a volatilized chemical compound, generally at a very low concentration, that humans or other animals perceive by the sense of olfaction. Odors are also called smells, which can refer to both pleasant and unpleasant odors. The terms fragrance, scent, and aroma are used primarily by the food and cosmetic industry to describe a pleasant odor, and are sometimes used to refer to perfumes. In contrast, malodorous, raunch, stench, reek, and stink are used specifically to describe unpleasant odors.
Security - Security is the degree of protection against danger, loss, and criminals. Individuals or actions that encroach upon the condition of protection are responsible for a "breach of security."
A condition that results from the establishment and maintenance of protective measures that ensure a state of inviolability from hostile acts or influences.
Security has to be compared and contrasted with other related concepts: Safety, continuity, reliability. The key difference between security and reliability is that security must take into account the actions of people attempting to cause destruction.
Silver - Silver is a chemical element with the chemical symbol Ag and atomic number 47. A soft, white, lustrous transition metal, it has the highest electrical conductivity of any element and the highest thermal conductivity of any metal. The metal occurs naturally in its pure, free form (native silver), as an alloy with gold (electrum) and other metals, and in minerals such as argentite and chlorargyrite. Most silver is produced as a by-product of copper, gold, lead, and zinc refining.
Silver has been known since ancient times and has long been valued as a precious metal, used to make ornaments, jewelry, high-value tableware, utensils (hence the term silverware), and currency coins. Today, silver metal is used in electrical contacts and conductors, in mirrors and in catalysis of chemical reactions. Its compounds are used in photographic film and dilute solutions of silver nitrate and other silver compounds are used as disinfectants. Although the antimicrobial uses of silver have largely been supplanted by the use of antibiotics, further research into its clinical potential is in progress.
Tracing - In logistics, tracking and tracing, concerns a process starting with determining the current and past locations and other status of property in transit. Tracking and tracing is the completion of this process with uniformly building a track of such property that are forwarded to, processed for, applied in or disposed of usage.
Usually this concept is supported by means of reckoning and reporting of the position of the vehicles that are transporting containers with the property of concern in real-time. This approach leaves the task to compose a coherent depiction of the subsequent status reports.
Another approach is to report the arrival or departure of the object and recording the identification of the object, the location where observed, the time, and the status, e.g. on damage or loading. This approach leaves the task to verify the reports regarding consistency and completeness. An example of this method might be the package tracking provided by shippers, such as United Parcel Service or FedEx.
The international standards organization EPCglobal under GS1 has ratified the EPCglobal Network standards (esp. the EPC Information Services EPCIS standard) which codify the syntax and semantics for supply chain events and the secure method for selectively sharing supply chain events with trading partners. Theses standards for tracking and tracing have been used in successful deployments in many industries and there are now a wide range of products that are certified as being compatible with these standards.